Selasa, 01 September 2009

Knowledge Management

Oleh:

Arip Nurahman

(Guru dan Dosen Profesional)


Abstract

WARNING ALERT!!!!! PERHATIAN!!!!!:

Membaca tulisan ini dapat menyebabkan SERANGAN KEPINTARAN, KECERDASAN, KESUKSESAN, Gangguan Kemalasan dan MASUK SURGA, amin.

Pembaca yang budiman, baik hati tidak sombong, rajin menabung dan sehat selalu, dapat memperbanyak dan menyebarluaskan isi website ini seutuhnya, atau sebagian trus dicetak dijual, di ajarkan ataupun dipakai bungkus kacang, ataupun dijadikan pesawat-terbang kertas, atau didaur ulang, dst-nya,

Asalkan tidak menghapus 'catatan hak cipta'. Karena banyak karya orang lain tersadur juga dalam dokumen website ini juga.

Okey ^_^. da bageur

(Sundanese language:" Anda kan Baik; red)

Knowledge management adalah konsep dan jargon besar yang susah diimplementasikan.

Betukah? masa seceeh ach,.,

Apakah karena saking sulitnya dipahami sehingga susah diimplementasikan?

Atau

karena memerlukan tool yang mahal dan canggih sehingga tidak mudah diterapkan?

Atau mungkin karena dosen dan pengajar KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT terlalu berteori setinggi langit sampai malah lupa untuk me-manage pengetahuannya sendiri?

he.,.he.,.^_^*V

(Mungkin yang terakhir ini yang jadi faktor utama. Aragh.,.he.,.he,.)

Menurut saya, KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT itu mudah, murah, dan wajib menjadi perilaku keseharian kita.

beneran lho.,.ana yakin ntu.,.ga percaya? Segera belajarrrrr he.,.he.,

Intro:

Apa itu Knowledge Management?

Diskusi kita awali dengan ungkapan Peter F. Drucker yang sangat terkenal, yaitu:

"The Basic Economic Resources is no Longer Capital, nor Natural Resources, nor Labor."

"It is and will be KNOWLEDGE"


Ya, perubahan dunia ini mengarah pada fenomena bahwa sumber ekonomi bukan lagi dalam bentuk MONEY CAPITAL atau SUMBER DAYA ALAM, melainkan ke arah KNOWLEDGE CAPITAL

Karena KNOWLEDGE alias pengetahuan ini kedepannya memegang peranan penting, maka kita harus megelolanya.

Konon kabarnya di suatu instansi pemerintah, hanya karena PNS yang sudah 30 tahun mengurusi listrik dan AC masuk masa pensiun, sehari setelah itu listrik dan AC masih belum menyala ketika para pegawai sudah masuk kantor.

Ya karena tidak ada yang menyalakan listrik dan AC, karena hanya PNS itu yang tiap pagi selama 30 Tahun menyalakan Listrik dan AC.

Bahasa Keren & Gaulnya:

"When employees leave a company, their knowledge goes with them"

Sekolah, Komunitas, Perkumpulan, Organisasi dan perusahaan harus lah pandai mengelola pengetahuannya dengan baik, apalagi individu, sehingga transfer pengetahuan dapat terjadi, tujuannya adalah:

1. Mengetahui kekuatan dan penempatan seluruh SDM;

2. Penggunaan kembali pengetahuan yang sudah ada (ditemukan) alias tidak perlu mengulangi proses kegagalan;

3. Mempercepat proses penciptaan pengetahuan baru dari pengetahuan yang ada; dan

4. Menjaga pergerakan organisasi tetap stabil meskipun terjadi arus keluar-masuk SDM.


Nah, sebenarnya yang berkewajiban mengelola pengetahuan itu INDIVIDUNYA atau ORGANISASINYA? Sebenarnya setiap orang harus mengelola pengetahuan mereka sendiri, karena yang paling berkepentingan mendapatkan manfaat dari pengelolaan pengetahuan itu adalah individu.

Semua pengetahuan yang saya dapat ketika

Belajar

Meneliti

Bekerja

Part-Time

Mengelola Proyek kecil-kecilan

dan Sebagainya. Saya Eksplisitkan ke dalam bentuk tulisan. Kemudian saya simpan dengan rapi, dan apabila merasa perlu, saya DATABASEKAN sehingga mempermudah saya pada saat mencarinya kembali.

Knowledge management itu mudah? Ya, mudah. Kita sudah melaksanakannya selama ini bukan? Tidak percaya?



Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used in an organisation to identify, create, represent, distribute and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organisational processes or practice.

An established discipline since 1991 (see Nonaka 1991), KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, and library and information sciences (Alavi & Leidner 1999). More recently, other fields have started contributing to KM research; these include information and media, computer science, public health, and public policy.

Many large companies and non-profit organisations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their 'Business Strategy', 'Information Technology', or 'Human Resource Management' departments (Addicott, McGivern & Ferlie 2006). Several consulting companies also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding KM to these organisations.

KM efforts typically focus on organisational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, and continuous improvement of the organisation. KM efforts overlap with Organisational Learning, and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. KM efforts can help individuals and groups to share valuable organisational insights, to reduce redundant work, to avoid reinventing the wheel per se, to reduce training time for new employees, to retain intellectual capital as employees turnover in an organisation, and to adapt to changing environments and markets (McAdam & McCreedy 2000)(Thompson & Walsham 2004).


History

KM efforts have a long history, to include on-the-job discussions, formal apprenticeship, discussion forums, corporate libraries, professional training and mentoring programs. More recently, with increased use of computers in the second half of the 20th century, specific adaptations of technologies such as knowledge bases, expert systems, knowledge repositories, group decision support systems, intranets and computer supported cooperative work have been introduced to further enhance such efforts[1].

In 1999, the term personal knowledge management was introduced which refers to the management of knowledge at the individual level (Wright 2005).

More recently with the advent of the Web 2.0, the concept of knowledge management has evolved towards a vision more based on people participation and emergence. This line of evolution is termed Enterprise 2.0 (McAfee 2006). However, there is still a debate (and discussions even in Wikipedia (Lakhani & McAfee 2007)) whether Enterprise 2.0 is just a fad, or if it brings something new, is the future of knowledge management (Davenport 2008) and is here to stay.


Research

A broad range of thoughts on the KM discipline exists with no unanimous agreement; approaches vary by author and school. As the discipline matures, academic debates have increased regarding both the theory and practice of KM, to include the following perspectives:

  • Techno-centric with a focus on technology, ideally those that enhance knowledge sharing and creation
  • Organisational with a focus on how an organisation can be designed to facilitate knowledge processes best
  • Ecological with a focus on the interaction of people, identity, knowledge, and environmental factors as a complex adaptive system akin to a natural ecosystem

Regardless of the school of thought, core components of KM include People, Processes, Technology (or) Culture, Structure, Technology, depending on the specific perspective (Spender & Scherer 2007). Different KM schools of thought include various lenses through which KM can be viewed and explained, to include:


Dimensions

Different frameworks for distinguishing between knowledge exist. One proposed framework for categorising the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge represents internalised knowledge that an individual may not be consciously aware of how he or she accomplishes particular tasks. At the opposite end of the spectrum, explicit knowledge represents knowledge that the individual holds consciously in mental focus, in a form that can easily be communicated to others.[8] (Alavi & Leidner 2001).

Early research suggested that a successful KM effort needs to convert internalised tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge in order to share it, but the same effort must also permit individuals to internalise and make personally meaningful any codified knowledge retrieved from the KM effort. Subsequent research into KM suggested that a distinction between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge represented an oversimplification and that the notion of explicit knowledge is self-contradictory. Specifically, for knowledge to be made explicit, it must be translated into information (i.e., symbols outside of our heads) (Serenko & Bontis 2004). Later on, Ikujiro Nonaka proposed a model (SECI for Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization) which considers a spiraling knowledge process interaction between explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995). In this model, knowledge follows a cycle in which implicit knowledge is 'extracted' to become explicit knowledge, and explicit knowledge is 'reinternalised' into implicit knowledge.

A second proposed framework for categorising the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between embedded knowledge of a system outside of a human individual (e.g., an information system may have knowledge embedded into its design) and embodied knowledge representing a learned capability of a human body’s nervous and endocrine systems (Sensky 2002).

A third proposed framework for categorising the dimensions of knowledge distinguishes between the exploratory creation of "new knowledge" (i.e., innovation) vs. the transfer or exploitation of "established knowledge" within a group, organisation, or community. Collaborative environments such as communities of practice or the use of social computing tools can be used for both knowledge creation and transfer [9].

Strategies

Knowledge may be accessed at three stages: before, during, or after KM-related activities. Different organisations have tried various knowledge capture incentives, including making content submission mandatory and incorporating rewards into performance measurement plans. Considerable controversy exists over whether incentives work or not in this field and no consensus has emerged.

One strategy to KM involves actively managing knowledge (push strategy). In such an instance, individuals strive to explicitly encode their knowledge into a shared knowledge repository, such as a database, as well as retrieving knowledge they need that other individuals have provided to the repository [10].

Another strategy to KM involves individuals making knowledge requests of experts associated with a particular subject on an ad hoc basis (pull strategy). In such an instance, expert individual(s) can provide their insights to the particular person or people needing this (Snowden 2002).

Other knowledge management strategies for companies include:

  • rewards (as a means of motivating for knowledge sharing)
  • storytelling (as a means of transferring tacit knowledge)
  • cross-project learning
  • after action reviews
  • knowledge mapping (a map of knowledge repositories within a company accessible by all)
  • communities of practice
  • best practice transfer
  • competence management (systematic evaluation and planning of competences of individual organization members)
  • proximity & architecture (the physical situation of employees can be either conducive or obstructive to knowledge sharing)
  • master-apprentice relationship
  • collaborative technologies (groupware, etc)
  • knowledge repositories (databases, etc)
  • measuring and reporting intellectual capital (a way of making explicit knowledge for companies)
  • knowledge brokers (some organizational members take on responsibility for a specific "field" and act as first reference on whom to talk about a specific subject)
  • social software (wikis, social bookmarking, blogs, etc)

Motivations

A number of claims exist as to the motivations leading organisations to undertake a KM effort [11]. Typical considerations driving a KM effort include:

  • Making available increased knowledge content in the development and provision of products and services
  • Achieving shorter new product development cycles
  • Facilitating and managing innovation and organisational learning
  • Leveraging the expertise of people across the organisation
  • Increasing network connectivity between internal and external individuals
  • Managing business environments and allowing employees to obtain relevant insights and ideas appropriate to their work
  • Solving intractable or wicked problems
  • Managing intellectual capital and intellectual assets in the workforce (such as the expertise and know-how possessed by key individuals)

Debate exists whether KM is more than a passing fad, though increasing amount of research in this field may hopefully help to answer this question, as well as create consensus on what elements of KM help determine the success or failure of such efforts (Wilson 2002) [12].

Technologies

Early KM technologies included online corporate yellow pages as expertise locators and document management systems. Combined with the early development of collaborative technologies (in particular Lotus Notes), KM technologies expanded in the mid-1990s. Subsequent KM efforts leveraged semantic technologies for search and retrieval and the development of e-learning tools for communities of practice [13] (Capozzi 2007).

More recently, development of social computing tools (such as blogs and wikis) have allowed more unstructured, self-governing or ecosystem approaches to the transfer, capture and creation of knowledge, including the development of new forms of communities, networks, or matrixed organisations. However such tools for the most part are still based on text and code, and thus represent explicit knowledge transfer. These tools face challenges in distilling meaningful re-usable knowledge and ensuring that their content is transmissible through diverse channels [14](Andrus 2005).

See also


References

  1. ^ http://www.unc.edu/~sunnyliu/inls258/Introduction_to_Knowledge_Management.html
  2. ^ http://www.crito.uci.edu/noah/HOIT/HOIT%20Papers/TeacherBridge.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.ischool.washington.edu/mcdonald/ecscw03/papers/groth-ecscw03-ws.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.ndu.edu/sdcfp/reports/2007Reports/IBM07%20.doc
  5. ^ http://iakm.kent.edu/programs/information-use/iu-curriculum.html
  6. ^ http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=984600
  7. ^ http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/wyssusek02sociopragmatic.html
  8. ^ http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=991169
  9. ^ http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=961043
  10. ^ http://www.cs.fiu.edu/~chens/PDF/IRI00_Rathau.pdf
  11. ^ http://tecom.cox.smu.edu/abasu/itom6032/kmlect.pdf
  12. ^ http://myweb.whitman.syr.edu/yogesh/papers/WhyKMSFail.pdf
  13. ^ http://elvis.slis.indiana.edu/irpub/HT/2001/pdf53.pdf
  14. ^ "Knowledge Management". www.systems-thinking.org. http://www.systems-thinking.org/kmgmt/kmgmt.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-26.

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