Rabu, 10 Juni 2009

Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Nuklir Indonesia


Indonesian Nuclear Vocational Education

Incorporated with:

Himpunan Peneliti Muda Amatir Independent Nuklir Indonesia

(HPMAINI)

Resentra (Rencana Strategis) Pengembangan Sains, Teknologi, Penelitian, Karir dan Pendidikan dalam Bidang Nuklir 5 tahun mendatang

Tahun 1.

Pembentukan Kumpulan Peneliti Amatir Muda Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir (Fokus pada Pembentukan Pendidik dan peneliti Nuklir, pembentukan jaringannya di seluruh Jawa barat, Langkah sederhanya pembuatan blog, dan rekrutmen anggota di dunia maya yang hobi pada bidang nuklir)

Tahun 2.

Kunjungan Ilmiah ke beberapa Institusi Pengembang Nuklir di Indonesia (Reaktor Penelitian Nuklir BATAN Bandung, Jurusan Teknik Nuklir UGM, dan LIPI)

3. Pembentukan SMK Nuklir (Pengembangan Kurikulum yang Optimal dalam Pendidikan Nuklir untuk membentuk Karakter Peneliti-peneliti nuklir yang kuat)

4. Kaderisasi kepada anggota baru yang mumpuni

5. Tawakal Ka Gusti Anu Maha Suci, amin!

Masyarakat Ilmu dan Teknologi Nuklir Indonesia

Himpunan Mahasiswa Penggemar Ilmu dan Teknologi Nuklir

Reaksi Nuklir

Arthur Beiser

The Houw Liong

1. Penampang

(Suatu ukuran kemungkinan interaksi tertentu)

2. Termalisasi Neutron

(Tumbukan elastic dengan inti memperlambat neutron)

3. Reaksi Nuklir

(Dalam banyak kasus inti majemuk terbentuk dahulu)

4. Sistem Koordinat Pusat Masa

(Bagaimana cara terbaik untuk menganalisa tumbukan)

5. Fissi Nuklir

(Pecahkan dan Kalahkan)

6. Reaktor Nuklir

(Dari Uranium ke Listrik)

7. Reaktor Pembiak

(Datang tetapi ada biaya yang harus dibayar)

8. Dunia Nuklir?

(Belum, tetapi mungkin kea rah itu)

9. Fusi Nuklir dalam Bintang

(Bagaimana matahari dan bintang memperoleh energy?)

10. Reaktor Fusi

(Sumber Energi Masa Depan)


Oleh:
Prof. Budi Santoso Sudarsono, M.Sc., Ph.D. (Ahli Peneliti Utama, Senior BATAN)


Menamatkan Pendidikan di:


Bedales School, Petersfield, Hampshire, Inggeris (1953-1955)
Peterhouse College, Cambridge University, Inggeris (1955-1958)
Nuclear Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, M.A., U.S.A. (1959-1961)

Bagian 1
Pengantar Fisika Nuklir:
(Reaksi Nuklir dan Reaksi Berantai)


Materi; Benda Padat, Cair dan Gas; atom dan molekul


Unsur; Nomor Atom dan Teori Atom

Inti Atom; Proton dan Neutron; Massa Atom

Nukleon dan Nuklida

Radioaktivitas; Sinar Alfa, Beta dan Gamma

Reaksi Nuklir; Radioaktivitas dan Waktu Paroh

Struktur Atom; Sifat Zarah dan Gelombang pada sekala Sub-Atomik

Lebih jauh tentang pergerakan dalam skala sub-atomik

Penemuan Neutron, Struktur Inti dan Angka Ajaib

Gaya Nuklir

Penemuan Pembelahan Inti

Reaksi Neutron

Reaksi Berantai

Reaktor Nuklir

Fisika Reaktor

Reaktor Nuklir bukan Bom Nuklir

Jenis-jenis Reaktor Nuklir yang dibangun dalam Pusat Listrik Tenaga Nuklir

Paparan Radiasi dan Dosis Radiasi

Cara Perlindungan dari Sinar Radiasi: Waktu, Jarak, dan Perisai

Bagian 2


Riwayat Perkembangan PLTN dan Status PLTN Dewasa ini

Proyek Manhattan

Lomba-lomba Usai Perang Dunia ke-II

Listrik Nuklir Pertama

Riwayat PLTN

Perjanjian Larangan Penyebaran Teknologi

Senjata Nuklir, NPT 1968

Gerakan Lingkungan dan Kemudian Gerakan Anti-Nuklir

Perkembangan Penting 1973-1974
*Insiden Three Mile Island-2
*1968 Kecelakaan Chernobyl-4
*Perkembangan Tahun 1990an
*Daur Bahan Bakar Nuklir
*Jenis-jenis Reaktor Nuklir dan Generasi-generasi PLTN
*Nuklir Mulai Dipertimbangkan Lagi Sekitar Tahun 2000

Bagian 3

Kajian dan Pilihan Jenis Energi
(Sumberdaya Energi dan Kelangkaan Energi)

Bagian 4

Ekonomi PLTN

Ketersediaan Uranium

Bagian 5


Keamanan, Keselamatan dan Keserasian Nuklir dengan Lingkungan

Kebocoran Zat Radioaktif

Kemungkinan Ledakan Nuklir

Sifat Aman Hakiki Reaktor Jenis Air

Dua Kecelakaan Nuklir Terparah

Kecelakaan Three Mile Island-2 Tahun 1979

Cernobil-4 Tahun 1986

Pengelolaan Limbah Nuklir

Dekomisioning

Kelestarian Lingkungan

Bagian 6


Aspek Hukum Pengembangan Nuklir dan Sejarah Perkembangan/Persiapan di Indonesia
*Segi Hukum Energi Nuklir
*Perkembangan Fasilitas Penelitian dan Pengembangan Energi Nuklir
*Prospek PLTN
*Keuntungan Program PLTN


Civilian uses

Nuclear power

Nuclear power is a type of nuclear technology involving the controlled use of nuclear fission to release energy for work including propulsion, heat, and the generation of electricity. Nuclear energy is produced by a controlled nuclear chain reaction which creates heat—and which is used to boil water, produce steam, and drive a steam turbine. The turbine is used to generate electricity and/or to do mechanical work.

Currently nuclear power provides approximately 15.7% of the world's electricity (in 2004) and is used to propel aircraft carriers, icebreakers and submarines (so far economics and fears in some ports have prevented the use of nuclear power in transport ships).[4]

Medical applications

The medical applications of nuclear technology are divided into diagnostics and radiation treatment.

Imaging - medical and dental x-ray imagers use of Cobalt-60 or other x-ray sources. Technetium-99m is used, attached to organic molecules, as radioactive tracer in the human body, before being excreted by the kidneys. Positron emitting nucleotides are used for high resolution, short time span imaging in applications known as Positron emission tomography.

Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for cancer.

Industrial applications

Oil and Gas Exploration- Nuclear well logging is used to help predict the commercial viability of new or existing wells. The technology involves the use of a neutron or gamma-ray source and a radiation detector which are lowered into boreholes to determine the properties of the surrounding rock such as porosity and lithography.[1]

Road Construction - Nuclear moisture/density gauges are used to determine the density of soils, asphalt, and concrete. Typically a Cesium-137 source is used.

Commercial applications

An ionization smoke detector includes a tiny mass of radioactive americium-241, which is a source of alpha radiation. Tritium is used with phosphor in rifle sights to increase nighttime firing accuracy. Luminescent exit signs use the same technology.[5]

Food processing and agriculture




The Radura logo, used to show a food has been treated with ionizing radiation.


Food irradiation[6] is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation in order to destroy microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, or insects that might be present in the food. The radiation sources used include radioisotope gamma ray sources, X-ray generators and electron accelerators. Further applications include sprout inhibition, delay of ripening, increase of juice yield, and improvement of re-hydration. Irradiation is a more general term of deliberate exposure of materials to radiation to achieve a technical goal (in this context 'ionizing radiation' is implied). As such it is also used on non-food items, such as medical hardware, plastics, tubes for gas-pipelines, hoses for floor-heating, shrink-foils for food packaging, automobile parts, wires and cables (isolation), tires, and even gemstones. Compared to the amount of food irradiated, the volume of those every-day applications is huge but not noticed by the consumer.


The genuine effect of processing food by ionizing radiation relates to damages to the DNA, the basic genetic information for life. Microorganisms can no longer proliferate and continue their malignant or pathogen activities. Spoilage causing micro-organisms cannot continue their activities. Insects do not survive or become incapable of procreation. Plants cannot continue the natural ripening or aging process. All these effects are beneficial to the consumer and the food industry, likewise.[6]

It should be noted that the amount of energy imparted for effective food irradiation is low compared to cooking the same; even at a typical dose of 10 kGy most food, which is (with regard to warming) physically equivalent to water, would warm by only about 2.5 °C (36.5 °F).

The specialty of processing food by ionizing radiation is the fact, that the energy density per atomic transition is very high, it can cleave molecules and induce ionization (hence the name) which cannot be achieved by mere heating. This is the reason for new beneficial effects, however at the same time, for new concerns. The treatment of solid food by ionizing radiation can provide an effect similar to heat pasteurization of liquids, such as milk. However, the use of the term, cold pasteurization, to describe irradiated foods is controversial, because pasteurization and irradiation are fundamentally different processes, although the intended end results can in some cases be similar.

Food irradiation is currently permitted by over 40 countries and volumes are estimated to exceed 500,000 metric tons (490,000 LT; 550,000 ST) annually world wide. [7] [8] [9]

It should be noted that food irradiation is essentially a non-nuclear technology; it relies on the use of ionizing radiation which may be generated by accelerators for electrons and conversion into bremsstrahlung, but which may use also gamma-rays from nuclear decay. There is a world-wide industry for processing by ionizing radiation, the majority by number and by processing power using accelerators. Food irradiation is only a niche application compared to medical supplies, plastic materials, raw materials, gemstones, cables and wires, etc.

Beneficial Uses of Radiation

Electric Power Generation

America’s 104 nuclear power plants generate nearly 20 percent of the nation’s electricity, while emitting no carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides.

Nuclear Power Plant Fuel

Nuclear power plants do not burn any fuel. Instead, they use uranium fuel, consisting of solid ceramic pellets, to produce electricity through a process called fission.

Medicine & Scientific Research

Nuclear medicine procedures prolong and improve the quality of people’s lives. Radioisotopes also are used extensively in scientific research.

Food & Agriculture

More than 40 countries have approved the use of radiation to help preserve nearly 40 different varieties of food. In agriculture, radiation has eradicated approximately 10 species of pest insects.

Consumer Products

Many consumer products—from smoke detectors to photocopiers, and watches to cosmetics—use small amounts of radiation.

Industrial Applications

Among industries that use radioactive materials in their processes and products are automobile and aircraft manufacturers, mining and oil companies, and construction companies.

Space

Unmanned spacecraft rely on radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for the power they need for space exploration. RTGs use heat from plutonium to generate electricity. They are safe, reliable and long-lived, even in the harsh climate of our solar system.

Fisika Nuklir

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power and nuclear weapons, but the research has provided wider applications, including those in medicine (nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging), materials engineering (ion implantation) and archaeology (radiocarbon dating).

The field of particle physics evolved out of nuclear physics and, for this reason, has been included under the same term in earlier times.

Contents


Semoga Bermanfaat, Terima Kasih, Bersemangat dan Mohon Maaf

Arip Nurahman

Pendidikan Fisika FPMIPA, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

&

Folower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University, U.S.A.

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