Selasa, 18 Agustus 2009

Pendidikan Object-Oriented Programming

Disusun dan diedit ulang Oleh:
Arip Nurahman
Guru dan Dosen Professional
Pendidikan Fisika, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia,
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Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University

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Harvard University. Cambridge, USA
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Mata Kuliah ini terselenggara atas kerjasama:

1. EECS at Manbaul Ullum University
2. Sebebian ICT Corporation
3. Seneby Unite
4. Ranger Group Corporation
5. dan semua pihak yang telah mendukung program ini, semoga mendapat pahala yang berlipat ganda amin!


Abstract

Uissss pasti dullrrr,.,.dulurr.,.,kabeh pada ngeri melihat kurikulum vitae sim abdi di luhurr.,.,.^_~ menyeramkan pendidikannya he.,.he.,.

no problemo coy! ^_~ take isi ajalah yang penting belajarrrrr.,.,.yang nulis aja masih bingung he.,he.,:D padahamah kuring ini asli budak ndeso bangunharja, budak kampung bau lisung tulen ghito lho!.

"Disana gunung di sini bukit di tengah-tengah ada sawah,..,.yang belajar bingung yang ngajarnya bingung sama-sama deweeeeh.,.,.bingung.,.he.,he.,

sori dori mori klo garing.,^_^.,.,maklum masih kemarau.,.aragh,.,.,.gag conek bgt seh.,.,.

kembali ke Belarrrrrrrrrrrrrrr,.,.

berdoaa dulu ya sebelum belajar! please! da bageurr!

Untuk Masuk Ke: E-University masukan data-data berikut:

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Intro:

OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING

Mata kuliah yang membahas pemrograman berorientasi objek (object-oriented programming (OOP)) dengan bahasa pemrograman Java. Materi disajikan dengan metode perimbangan teori-praktek, dengan harapan bahwa mahasiswa disamping memahami konsep dan paradigma berorientasi objek, juga memiliki skill pemrograman di level dasar-intermediate. Untuk itu mahasiswa yang mengikuti mata kuliah ini diharapkan membawa laptop di kelas. Materi akan diperkaya dengan berbagai studi kasus dan penugasan membuat program Java berbasis text dan GUI.

Mahasiswa yang mengikuti mata kuliah ini harus menyelesaikan seluruh tugas dan ujian, karena nilai akhir adalah nilai total dari berbagai tugas dan ujian. Jangan lupa untuk mengupdate data pribadi, khususnya di bagian nama lengkap, nama universitas dan nomor induk mahasiswa.

(Disalin dari perkuliahan online Bpk. Romi Satria Wahono, B.Eng., M.Eng., D.Eng.)



Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses "objects" – data structures consisting of datafields andmethods – and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. Programming techniques may include features such asinformation hiding, data abstraction, encapsulation, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. It was not commonly used in mainstream software application development until the early 1990s. Many modern programming languages now support OOP.


1. OOP CONCEPTS

Pada bagian ini akan dibahas tentang konsep-konsep dan karakteristik dari pemrograman berorientasi objek (OOP). Pembahasan akan diawali dengan konsep pemrograman, paradigma, dan tool pemrograman. Kemudian akan dibahas konsep dasar dan lanjut dari pemrograman berorientasi objek.


2. JAVA FUNDAMENTALS

Pada bagian ini akan dibahas tentang dasar-dasar pemrograman Java. Pembahasan meliputi: pernyataan, ekspresi, variabel, tipe data, literal, array, operator, pernyataan penentu keputusan dan pernyataan pengulangan proses.



3. JAVA ADVANCED

Pada bagian ini akan dibahas tentang pemrograman Java untuk tingkat lanjut. Pembahasan meliputi: penanganan eksepsi, multithreading, I/O stream, operasi berhubungan dengan file dan direktori, dan yang terakhir terntang berbagai class penting yang ada di Java API



4. JAVA GUI

Pada bagian ini akan dibahas tentang pemrograman Java berbasis Graphical User Interface (GUI), khususnya menggunakan Swing. Pembahasan meliputi: konsep GUI di Java, komponen dasar Swing, penanganan kejadian (event handling) untuk GUI dan bagaimana membuat program GUI dengan Netbeans.



5. JAVA GUI WITH NETBEANS

Bagian ini melanjutkan pembahasan Java GUI, dengan penekanan pada bagaimana mengembangkan aplikasi GUI dengan menggunakan IDE Netbeans. Contoh, studi kasus dan latihan diperbanyak dengan harapan mahasiswa mahir mengembangkan aplikasi desktop berbasis GUI dengan menggunakan Java.




6. JAVA ALGORITHM

Bagian ini membahas tentang algoritma dengan menggunakan bahasa Java.




7. JAVA DATABASE

Bagian ini membahas tentang teknik membuat aplikasi Java dengan koneksi ke database



8. JAVA AI

Bagian ini membahas tentang teknik menerapkan konsep kecerdasan buatan atau artificial intelligence (AI) ke dalam bahasa Java.


9. CERTIFICATE OF ACHIEVEMENT

Bagi yang sudah menyelesaikan pembelajaran dan berhasil mendapatkan nilai (grade) minimal C, silakan request Certificate of Achievement melalui fitur di bawah.


Fundamental concepts and features

A survey by Deborah J. Armstrong [2] of nearly 40 years of computing literature identified a number of "quarks", or fundamental concepts, found in the strong majority of definitions of OOP. They are the following:

Class
Defines the abstract characteristics of a thing (object), including the thing's characteristics (its attributes, fields or properties) and the thing's behaviors (the things it can do, ormethods, operations or features). One might say that a class is a blueprint or factory that describes the nature of something. For example, the class Dog would consist of traits shared by all dogs, such as breed and fur color (characteristics), and the ability to bark and sit (behaviors). Classes provide modularity and structure in an object-oriented computer program. A class should typically be recognizable to a non-programmer familiar with the problem domain, meaning that the characteristics of the class should make sense in context. Also, the code for a class should be relatively self-contained (generally using encapsulation). Collectively, the properties and methods defined by a class are called members.
Object
A pattern (exemplar) of a class. The class of Dog defines all possible dogs by listing the characteristics and behaviors they can have; the object Lassie is one particular dog, with particular versions of the characteristics. A Dog has fur; Lassie has brown-and-white fur.
Instance
One can have an instance of a class or a particular object. The instance is the actual object created at runtime. In programmer jargon, the Lassie object is an instance of the Dogclass. The set of values of the attributes of a particular object is called its state. The object consists of state and the behaviour that's defined in the object's class.
Method
An object's abilities. In language, methods (sometimes referred to as "functions") are verbs. Lassie, being a Dog, has the ability to bark. So bark() is one of Lassie's methods. She may have other methods as well, for example sit() or eat() or walk() or save_timmy(). Within the program, using a method usually affects only one particular object; all Dogs can bark, but you need only one particular dog to do the barking.
Message passing
"The process by which an object sends data to another object or asks the other object to invoke a method." [2] Also known to some programming languages as interfacing. For example, the object called Breeder may tell the Lassie object to sit by passing a "sit" message which invokes Lassie's "sit" method. The syntax varies between languages, for example: [Lassie sit] in Objective-C. In Java, code-level message passing corresponds to "method calling". Some dynamic languages use double-dispatch or multi-dispatch to find and pass messages.
Inheritance
"Subclasses" are more specialized versions of a class, which inherit attributes and behaviors from their parent classes, and can introduce their own.
For example, the class Dog might have sub-classes called Collie, Chihuahua, and GoldenRetriever. In this case, Lassie would be an instance of the Collie subclass. Suppose theDog class defines a method called bark() and a property called furColor. Each of its sub-classes (Collie, Chihuahua, and GoldenRetriever) will inherit these members, meaning that the programmer only needs to write the code for them once.
Each subclass can alter its inherited traits. For example, the Collie class might specify that the default furColor for a collie is brown-and-white. The Chihuahua subclass might specify that the bark() method produces a high pitch by default. Subclasses can also add new members. The Chihuahua subclass could add a method called tremble(). So an individual chihuahua instance would use a high-pitched bark() from the Chihuahua subclass, which in turn inherited the usual bark() from Dog. The chihuahua object would also have the tremble() method, but Lassie would not, because she is a Collie, not a Chihuahua. In fact, inheritance is an "a... is a" relationship between classes, while instantiation is an "is a" relationship between an object and a class: a Collie is a Dog ("a... is a"), but Lassie is a Collie ("is a"). Thus, the object named Lassie has the methods from both classesCollie and Dog.
Multiple inheritance is inheritance from more than one ancestor class, neither of these ancestors being an ancestor of the other. For example, independent classes could defineDogs and Cats, and a Chimera object could be created from these two which inherits all the (multiple) behavior of cats and dogs. This is not always supported, as it can be hard both to implement and to use well.
Abstraction
Abstraction is simplifying complex reality by modeling classes appropriate to the problem, and working at the most appropriate level of inheritance for a given aspect of the problem.
For example, Lassie the Dog may be treated as a Dog much of the time, a Collie when necessary to access Collie-specific attributes or behaviors, and as an Animal (perhaps the parent class of Dog) when counting Timmy's pets.
Abstraction is also achieved through
Composition. For example, a class Car would be made up of an Engine, Gearbox, Steering objects, and many more components. To build theCar class, one does not need to know how the different components work internally, but only how to interface with them, i.e., send messages to them, receive messages from them, and perhaps make the different objects composing the class interact with each other.
Encapsulation
Encapsulation conceals the functional details of a class from objects that send messages to it.
For example, the Dog class has a bark() method. The code for the bark() method defines exactly how a bark happens (e.g., by inhale() and then exhale(), at a particular pitch and volume). Timmy, Lassie's friend, however, does not need to know exactly how she barks. Encapsulation is achieved by specifying which classes may use the members of an object. The result is that each object exposes to any class a certain interface — those members accessible to that class. The reason for encapsulation is to prevent clients of an interface from depending on those parts of the implementation that are likely to change in the future, thereby allowing those changes to be made more easily, that is, without changes to clients. For example, an interface can ensure that puppies can only be added to an object of the class Dog by code in that class. Members are often specified aspublic, protected or private, determining whether they are available to all classes, sub-classes or only the defining class. Some languages go further: Java uses the defaultaccess modifier to restrict access also to classes in the same package, C# and VB.NET reserve some members to classes in the same assembly using keywords internal (C#) or Friend (VB.NET), and Eiffel and C++ allow one to specify which classes may access any member.
(Subtype) polymorphism
Polymorphism allows the programmer to treat derived class members just like their parent class' members. More precisely, Polymorphism in object-oriented programming is the ability of objects belonging to different data types to respond to method calls of methods of the same name, each one according to an appropriate type-specific behavior. One method, or an operator such as +, -, or *, can be abstractly applied in many different situations. If a Dog is commanded to speak(), this may elicit a bark(). However, if a Pig is commanded to speak(), this may elicit an oink(). They both inherit speak() from Animal, but their derived class methods override the methods of the parent class; this is Overriding Polymorphism. Overloading Polymorphism is the use of one method signature, or one operator such as "+", to perform several different functions depending on the implementation. The "+" operator, for example, may be used to perform integer addition, float addition, list concatenation, or string concatenation. Any two subclasses of Number, such as Integer and Double, are expected to add together properly in an OOP language. The language must therefore overload the addition operator, "+", to work this way. This helps improve code readability. How this is implemented varies from language to language, but most OOP languages support at least some level of overloading polymorphism. Many OOP languages also support parametric polymorphism, where code is written without mention of any specific type and thus can be used transparently with any number of new types. Pointers are an example of a simple polymorphic routine[dubious ] that can be used with many different types of objects.[3]
Decoupling
Decoupling allows for the separation of object interactions from classes and inheritance into distinct layers of abstraction. A common use of decoupling is to polymorphically decouple the encapsulation, which is the practice of using reusable code to prevent discrete code modules from interacting with each other. However, in practice decoupling often involves trade-offs with regard to which patterns of change to favor. The science of measuring these trade-offs in respect to actual change in an objective way is still in its infancy.

Not all of the above concepts are to be found in all object-oriented programming languages, and so object-oriented programming that uses classes is called sometimes class-based programming. In particular, prototype-based programming does not typically use classes. As a result, a significantly different yet analogous terminology is used to define the concepts of object and instance.


Main features


The attempt to distill OOP to a minimal set of features is considered futile by programming language researcher Benjamin C. Pierce. Nevertheless, he identifies the following as fundamental features that are found in most object-oriented languages and that, in concert, support the OOP programming style:[4]

  • Dynamic dispatch -- when a method is invoked on an object, the object itself determines what code gets executed by looking up the method at run time in a table associated with the object. This feature distinguishes an object from an abstract data type (or module), which has a fixed (static) implementation of the operations for all instances
  • Encapsulation (or multi-methods, in which case the state is kept separate)
  • Subtype polymorphism
  • Class inheritance (or delegation)
  • Open recursion -- a special variable (syntactically it may be a keyword), usually called this or self, that allows a method body to invoke another method body of the same object. This variable is late-bound; it allows a method defined in one class to invoke another method that is defined later, in some subclass thereof.

Similarly, in hist 2003 book, Concepts in programming languages, John C. Mitchell identifies four main features: dynamic dispatch, abstraction, subtype polymorphism, and inheritance.[5] Michael Lee Scott in Programming Language Pragmatics considers only encapsulation, inheritance and dynamic dispatch.[6]



References

  1. ^ Kay, Alan. "The Early History of Smalltalk". Retrieved 2007-09-13.
  2. ^ a b Armstrong, The Quarks of Object-Oriented Development. In descending order of popularity, the "quarks" are: Inheritance, Object, Class, Encapsulation, Method, Message Passing, Polymorphism, Abstraction
  3. ^ B. Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language, 3rd-ed., p. 158
  4. ^ Pierce, Benjamin (2002). Types and Programming Languages. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-16209-1., section 18.1 "What is Object-Oriented Programming?"
  5. ^ John C. Mitchell, Concepts in programming languages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0521780985, p.278
  6. ^ Michael Lee Scott, Programming language pragmatics, Edition 2, Morgan Kaufmann, 2006, ISBN 0126339511, p. 470
  7. ^ a b A Theory of Objects, Martin Abadi and Luca Cardelli
  8. ^ Meyer, Second Edition, p. 230
  9. ^ M.Trofimov, OOOP - The Third "O" Solution: Open OOP. First Class, OMG, 1993, Vol. 3, issue 3, p.14.
  10. ^ "Mode inheritance, cloning, hooks & OOP (Google Groups Discussion)".
  11. ^ http://www.csm.ornl.gov/~v8q/Homepage/Papers%20Old/spetep-%20printable.pdf
  12. ^ C. J. Date, Introduction to Database Systems, 6th-ed., Page 650
  13. ^ C. J. Date, Hugh Darwen, Foundation for Future Database Systems: The Third Manifesto (2nd Edition)
  14. ^ The AI Effect
  15. ^ STLport: An Interview with A. Stepanov

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